The ATmega8A is an 8-bit microcontroller that is part of the AVR family of microcontrollers manufactured by Atmel, which is now a part of Microchip Technology.
Direct port registers are memory-mapped I/O registers that allow direct access to the input/output (I/O) ports of the microcontroller without the need for accessing the ports through the memory interface. In other words, they provide a faster way to read or write to the I/O pins of the microcontroller.
In the case of the ATmega8A, there are three 8-bit I/O ports, namely PORTB, PORTC, and PORTD, which have corresponding data direction registers (DDRx), port input pins (PINx), and port output pins (PORTx). The direct port registers for these ports are as follows:
- PORTB: PORTB, DDRB, PINB
- PORTC: PORTC, DDRC, PINC
- PORTD: PORTD, DDRD, PIND
The PORTx register controls the output state of the pins in the corresponding port, the DDRx register controls the direction of the data flow, and the PINx register reads the input state of the pins in the corresponding port.
To use the direct port registers in your code, you can simply write to or read from them using the appropriate register name. For example, to set pin 5 of PORTB as an output, you can write the following code:
DDRB |= (1 << 5); // Set bit 5 of DDRB to 1
This sets bit 5 of the DDRB register to 1, which configures pin 5 of PORTB as an output pin. Similarly, to set pin 5 of PORTB high, you can write the following code:
PORTB |= (1 << 5); // Set bit 5 of PORTB to 1
This sets bit 5 of the PORTB register to 1, which sets pin 5 of PORTB high.